crimes and punishments

crimes and punishments
Broadly, in the OT, crimes are conceived either as religious offences or crimes against society. Both are punishable, even by death in the case of the worship of foreign gods (Exod. 22:20). Blasphemy [[➝ blasphemy]] also carries the penalty by stoning (Lev. 24:13 ff.), as does the practice of black arts (Lev. 20:27). The punishment for failing to celebrate the Passover was excommunication (Num. 9:13).
Crimes against the person such as rape if the victim was betrothed were punishable by death, as were other offences against the family such as incest (Lev. 20:11 f.) or persistent disobedience to parents (Deut. 21:18 ff.). Premeditated murder merited death. Crimes against property, such as enlarging one's real estate at the expense of a neighbour (Deut. 19:14) or using faulty scales (Deut. 25:15 ff.), were to be made good by compensation.
Imprisonment was unknown until after the Return from the Exile (Ezra 7:26). Executions took place outside cities, and it is prescribed in Deut. 17:7 (corroborated by John 8:7) that a stoning should be initiated by the witnesses in the case.
The OT legislation on criminal justice is contained in four codes of different dates, of which the earliest is the book of the Covenant [[➝ covenant]] in Exod. 20:22–23:33 and the latest the Priestly Code [[➝ Priestly narrative]], whose prescriptions are scattered through Exod. (12 and 13; 25–31 and 35–40), Lev. (1–16), and Num. (1–10). In between are the Deuteronomic Code (Deut. 12–18), and the Holiness Code (Lev. 17–26), which is included within the Priestly corpus.
Whether the Jewish authorities had the right under the Romans to inflict capital punishment is debated. It is denied in John 18:31, supported by a saying in the Mishnah. On the other hand notices threatening death warned Gentiles against penetrating into the inner part of the Temple, and Stephen was brought before ‘the council’ and stoned. If Jews did have such a right, then—because Jesus was undoubtedly executed by the Roman method of crucifixion—it is argued that Jesus was accused of inciting to rebellion against Rome: the gospels' accounts of trials before the Sanhedrin are antisemitic [[➝ antisemitism]] Christian propaganda. Nevertheless a good case can be made for the historicity of the Sanhedrin trial. And the stoning of Stephen could well have been a lynching by the mob during the absence of the governor in Caesarea rather than a judicial execution.

Dictionary of the Bible.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Roman military decorations and punishments — As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions.Decorations,… …   Wikipedia

  • Crimes (Substituted Section 59) Amendment Act 2007 — Parliament of New Zealand Long title/ Purpose The purpose of this Act is to amend the principal Act to make better provision for children to live in a safe and secure environme …   Wikipedia

  • Crime and Punishment (disambiguation) — Crime and Punishment may refer to: Crime and Punishment, the novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky Crime Punishment, a 2002 reality television series Crime and Punishment (video game), a 1984 legal simulation game released for the Commodore 64 and MS DOS… …   Wikipedia

  • WAR CRIMES TRIALS — Crystallization of the Principles of International Criminal Law Immediately after the outbreak of World War II, when the first Nazi violations of the laws and customs of war as defined by the Hague and Geneva Conventions were revealed (and in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Religion and capital punishment — Part of a series on Capital punishment Issues Debate · …   Wikipedia

  • Capital and corporal punishment in Judaism — The Jewish tradition describes certain forms of corporal punishment and capital punishment for certain crimes, while cautioning against the use of such punishments. Contents 1 Capital punishment in classical sources 1.1 Stringencies of Evidence… …   Wikipedia

  • Society and culture of the Han Dynasty — A Western Han jade carved door knocker with designs of Chinese dragons (and two other jade figurines) The Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) was a period of ancient China divided by the Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25–220 CE) periods …   Wikipedia

  • Law, Crime, and Law Enforcement — ▪ 2006 Introduction Trials of former heads of state, U.S. Supreme Court rulings on eminent domain and the death penalty, and high profile cases against former executives of large corporations were leading legal and criminal issues in 2005.… …   Universalium

  • War crimes trials — are trials of persons charged with criminal violation of the laws and customs of war and related principles of international law. The practice began after World War I, when some German leaders were tried by a German court in Leipzig for crimes… …   Wikipedia

  • Law and Government of Colorado — The Constitution of the U.S. State of Colorado provides for three branches of government: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial branches.cite web|url=|title=Constitution of the State of… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”